“Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (29 October 1507 – 11…

“Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel (29 October 1507 – 11 December 1582) was known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands.

He is considered the best general of his generation by some historians. He is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, and repeatedly defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau in the battle of Jemmingen (1568) during the first stages of the Eighty Years’ War. He is also known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen, Naarden and Haarlem.
In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken
and Alba was recalled to Spain.”

(Source: Wikipedia)

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A Historian Walks into a Bar . . .